Saturday, September 13, 2008

Zhoushan Island

Zhoushan Island is the principal island of the namesake archipelago Zhoushan Islands, governed by Zhoushan City, Zhejiang Province, the People's Republic of China. Its name means "Boat Mountain", because its shape. It is the province's largest island, and China's third largest . The island is the district seats of both and Putuo.


At 30° N. 122° E., it lies northwest to southeast, and has a circumference of 170.16 km , with a maximum length of 44 km , and a maximum width of 18 km . Its area is 502.65 km? . At its closest point, it is 9.1 kilometres from the Chinese mainland. The tallest point is 503.6 metres.

The island is beautifully diversified with hill and dale, and well watered with numerous small streams, of which the most considerable is the Dongjiang, faffing into the harbour of Dinghai. There are several hundred ports around the islands, separated into three areas: Dinghai Port Zone, Shengjiamen Port Zone , and Laotangshan Port Zone . The tourism regions include the regions of Chengjiamen and Dinghai.


440000 people, mostly , in 150000 households live in the following 17 subdivisions of Dinghai and Putuo Districts are on Zhoushan Island:


The peak of Qinglong Mountain has a memorial tablet dedicated to revolutionary martyrs. Dinghai has a number of sites related to the Opium War:
* Opium War Memorial Park
* Temples of the Three Loyalists
* The Tablet of the Martyring Site of Lord Yao
* The Tablet of the Martyring Site of Mr. Li
* Zhengyuan Cannon Platform
* Daotou City

There also those about the - contention:
* Tonggui City
* The Well of Imperial Consort Yuan of King Lu

Other sites include:
* Zuyin Temple , from 940年
* San Mao Memorial Museum


Zhoushan , formerly transliterated as Chusan, is a prefecture-level city in northeastern Zhejiang , People's Republic of China. The only prefecture-level city consisting solely of islands, it lies across the mouth of the Hangzhou Bay, and is separated from the mainland by a narrow body of water.


The prefecture-level city of Zhoushan administers 2 and 2 .

*Dinghai District
*Putuo District, Zhoushan
*Daishan County
*Shengsi County

These are further divided into 45 , including 24 , 12 and 9 subdistricts.


The archipelago was inhabited 6,000 years ago during the Neolithic by people of the Hemudu culture. During the Spring and Autumn Period, Zhoushan was called Yongdong , referring to its location east of the Yong River, and belonged to the State of Yue.

The fishermen and sailors who inhabited the islands often engaged in piracy and became recruits for uprisings against the central authorities. At the time of the Eastern Jin Dynasty, Zhoushan Islands served as the base for Sun En's rebellion. Sun En, an adherent of the sect Wudou Midao , launched his rebellion around the year 400 and was defeated by Jin forces in 402.

In 863, the Japanese Buddhist monks Hui'e and Zhang-shi of Putuoshan, Zhoushan placed a statue of Guanyin at Chaoying Cave that would later become popular tourist destination.

During the Ming dynasty, especially between the years 1530 and 1560, Japanese and Chinese pirates used Zhoushan as one of their principal bases from which they launched attacks as far as Nanjing; "the whole Chinese coast from northern Shandong to western Guangdong was ravaged to a distance of sixty miles inland."

After suppression of the pirates, Zhoushan became an important commercial entrep?t. Under the early dynasty, it played a similar role to and as a frequent port of call for Western traders. The restriction of all European trade to the port of Canton in 1760 forced Westerners to leave Zhoushan. One of the requests of 's embassy to emperor in 1793 was an acquisition of "a small unfortified island near Zhoushan for the residence of English traders, storage of goods, and outfitting of ships." Emperor Qianlong denied this request together with all the rest.

British forces under Captain Charles Elliott seized Zhoushan in the summer of 1840 during the First Opium War and evacuated it in early 1841, after Elliott reached an agreement with Qishan, the governor general of Tianjin and grand secretary to emperor Daoguang, in exchange for cession of Hong Kong. At that time, Zhoushan was a well known port while Hong Kong was only a fishing village. The British Foreign Secretary was famously livid when he learned that Elliott agreed to cession of Hong Kong while giving up Zhoushan. Elliott was dismissed in April 1841 for his blunder. His replacement led a British fleet that recaptured Zhoushan in late August 1841. The First Opium War ended with conclusion of the Treaty of Nanjing in which China opened up the cities of Canton, Fuzhou, Amoy, Ningbo, and Shanghai to residence by British subjects for the purpose of trade. As a result, Britain had no longer any use for Zhoushan but it kept the island until 1846 as a guarantee for the fulfilment of the stipulations of the treaty.

Zhoushan was also occupied by the British in 1860 .

In February 13, 1862, Wang Yijun of the Heavenly Kingdom of Taiping attempted overtake Zhoushan from forces, but died in the unsuccessful attempt.

Sun Yat-sen visited Zhoushan on August 25, 1916 and wrote ''Travelling to Putuo'' .

On October 1, 1942, the Japanese ''Lisbon Maru'' transported 1,800 POW back to Tokyo, but ''Lisbon Maru'' sank after being hit by a torpedo near Qingbing Island . 384 of the British POW overboard were rescued by the fishermen of Dongji Township nearby.

Administrative history

Today's Zhoushan city was made Wengshan District of Ming Prefecture in 738 . In 1073 , it was renamed Changguo . It was upgraded to a prefecture in early Yuan Dynasty, and changed to Dinghai District of Zhejiang Province in 1688 . It was upgraded to a direct-control subprefecture in 1841, but reverted to a county after the end of empire.

Under the Republic of China's rule, Dinghai County was, as during always in the Qing Dynasty, part of Zhejiang Province. However, Shengsi was separated into an Archipelago Direct-control District of Jiangsu Province in 1946, and made a county in October 1949. In that same year, the last year under rule of the Republic, the remaining Dinghai County was divided into Dinghai and Wengzhou Counties.

Zhoushan came to be under communist control on May 17, 1950, and Wengzhou was merged back into Dinghai County, which was then under Ningpo ''Zhuanqu'' .
Shengsi was made a ''tequ'' of Songjiang ''Zhuanqu'' , still of Jiangsu this year, and upgraded to a county the following year.

In March 1953, the Council of Ministers approved to divide Dinghai County into the counties of Dinghai, Putuo, and Daishan. In addition, Shengsi County was returned to Zhejiang, to be administered, with the three former Dinghai counties, as Zhoushan ''Zhuanqu'' of Zhejiang County of Ningpo ''Zhuanqu'' was briefly incorporated into Zhoushan from 1954 to 1958.

All subdivisions' county status abolished, the commission became a county of Ningpo ''Zhuanqu'' in 1958, and was reverted to a ''zhuanqu'' on its own in May 1962, and changed to a prefecture on 1967 .

Shengsi was temporarily assigned to Shanghai in the early 1960s. Created in 1962, the short-lived Daqu County was halved into parts of Daishan and Shengsi four years later.

The prefecture-level city status was granted on January 27, 1987 to Zhoushan, and Dinghai and Putuo Counties were upgraded to districts. The municipal People's Government was established on March 8 of that year. April of the same year, the ports of Zhoushan became open to foreign ships. On April 10, 1988, it became a coastal economic open zone.


The Zhoushan Archipelago, comprised 1,390 islands and 3,306 reefs, is located outside Hangzhou Bay. It is the largest archipelago of China . Among these islands, 103 are inhabited all year round, 58 are larger than 1 km?; , and only 15 have populations over 10,000. The larger islands, mostly closer together in southern part of the archipelago, include:

Zhoushan includes 20,800 km? of marine territory, but only 1440.12 km? of land, 183.19 km? of which are submerged at high tides. It is 182 km east-east and 169 km north-south. It is heavily populated, but now has little farms.


As of late 2001, there are 981,014 people in 351,224 households, with a birthrate of 6.34‰ and death rate of 6.37‰, and population growth rate of -0.03‰ . Population density was 683 persons per km?, which is one time higher than provincial average and six times national average. There are 100,000 overseas Zhoushan people.

Notable people

* , founder of several major companies
*Great Monk Guoru , a National Monk under Cixi
*The Great Lord of Yang Estate , a local fisherman who rescued many later deified in a small temple in Daishan
*Liu Hongsheng businessman and politician
* ,famous Taiwanese writer
*Wang Xipeng , high-ranking official died in a fight against the British
*Yang Jingjuan , famous female communist
*Ying Yao , a martial official who has a biography in ''Song Shi''

Sister City

Zhoushan is the sister city of the San Francisco Bay Area port city of Richmond, California.

Zhifu Island

Zhifu Island , or North Island , is an islet with historical significance in Shandong, China. The name of the islet -- Chefoo -- was generalized to mean the entire Yantai region in older western literature.

* Area: 11.5
* Coast line: 22.5 km
* Average temperature: 11.40-13.50°C

Administratively, Zhifu Island is a part of Dàtuǎn Village , Xingfu Sub-district, Zhifu District, Yantai City, Shandong Province. Dàtuǎn has a part on the mainland, where the offices and most residents are.


Located in Bohai Sea, the island is 4 from Downtown Zhifu and is 10 km x 1 km. Part of Public Road No. 26 connects the western end of the island and the north part of the mainland peninsula. Originally, the island was disconnected from the mainland, but for a period of millennium of years, the sand and soil in the ocean floor built up a 600-metre wide pathway. Thus the island is called the "Mainland-connecting Island" in Chinese ; it could even be considered a small peninsula.

The island's largest mountain is Laoye Mountain at 294.1m. The Old Lady Stone is on a cliff, at 43.49 metres above sea level, named because of its resemblance to a woman hugging the ocean waves. The southern part of the island is forested.


Archeological exhibitions discovered over 200 artifacts, including stone axes, and short axes , pottery fragments, bone needles, and bone hairpin. These and Carbon-14 dating indicated that the island has been settled since the Neolithic period.

People were buried here during the Zhou Dynasty, including Lord Kang of Qi State , who died on the island. The ruins of the cemetery still exist today. Lord Yang Temple was built during the early Zhou Dynasty by the State of Qí to worship Lord Yang, the fifth deity of the Eight Divine Generals .

Because of a legend of a Mountain of Immortality, Qin Shi Huang visited the island three times looking for the elixir. He left a couple of stone inscriptions still visible today:
* During his second visit in 218 BC, he left the inscription: "Arrived at Fu, and carved the stone" .
* The last time , "Came to Fu, saw enormous stone, and shot one fish" .
Today, there are places like Shihuang Way , and Fish-shooting Tower named after the emperor. Having failed to discover the elixir, he sent a Xu Fu off the mainland from Yantai, to sail away and find the elixir of life with hundreds of men and women.

After performing a ceremony in the Yangzhu Temple, also left an inscription in 94 BC: "Arrived at Zhifu, which floats on Great Ocean. Mountains call out 'Ten thousand years!" .

Now, the island is mainly a tourist attraction, although clams and abalones can be fished here in abundance.


Possibilities include:
# "A Barrier in the Shape of a Magical Plant"
#* ''Zhi'' is a magical and powerful plant, which the island's shape resembles
#* ''Fu'' a barrier of ocean
# A magical mountain name
#* From Qin Dynasty's Zhifu , officially changed to the present character in late Qing Dynasty.

Zhenbao Island

Zhenbao Island or Damansky Island is a small island of in the Ussuri River on the border between Russia and the People's Republic of China . It was the subject of a territorial dispute between the Soviet Union and the PRC. On May 19, 1991, the two sides came to agreement that the island belongs to the PRC.

Battles with considerable loss of life were fought by the Soviet Union and the PRC over this island during the Sino-Soviet border conflict of 1969. In total, the Soviet forces claimed that the Chinese suffered 800 casualties while the Soviets only had 60 killed or wounded; the Chinese claim to have suffered only a few casualties, far less than Soviet losses. At the time, there were almost one and a half million troops deployed along the border.

A Soviet documentary movie ''Damansky Island. Year 1969.'' was made interviewing participants and leaders from both sides.

Zha Xi Island

Zha Xi Island is a small island in the middle of Lake Basum Tso a green salt water lake approximately 300 km east of Lhasa in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China.There are many large stones on Zha Xi Island and each big stone is a symbol of a different Bodhisattva.

Yinlong Island

Yinlong Island is a sedimentary island at the confluence of the and Amur rivers in . The island has an area of between 50 and 100 km?. It is bounded closely by Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island.

Until 2008 Yinalong Island and its neighbouring islands were the site of a territorial dispute between China and Russia. Russia occupied the islands in 1929. However this was never accepted by China. While Russia governed the islands as a part of Khabarovsk Krai, China claimed them as a part of Fuyuan County, Heilongjiang province.

The dispute over Yinlong Island and its neighbouring islands weas finally resolved on July 21 2008. On that day the Foreign Ministers of the two countries signed an agreement in Beijing. Under the agreement, Russia ceded approximately 174 km? of territory to China. This comprised all of Yinalong Island and approximately half of the larger Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island. At the time of the territory transfer, Yinalong Island was largely uninhabited. The settlement of their border dispute followed over 40 years of negotiations. The final settlement was the result of the which was concluded on June 2 2005.

Yinalong Island and the surrounding islands are the most eastern part of China and are the first place on mainland China to see sunlight.
Some news reports suggest that China is considering developing tourism on Yinalong Island.

Yijiangshan Islands

The Yijiangshan Islands are two small islands eight miles from the Tachen group, located between Shanghai and Keelung in the Taiwan Strait. On January 20, 1955 it was captured by the People's Liberation Army from Republic of China Nationalist forces in the Battle of Yijiangshan even as the U.S. Seventh Fleet was patrolling nearby.